Frequently Asked Questions

General Questions

Unlike ships, STOL or VTOR aircraft; and / or off road motorcycle or 4X4s, ET3 requires fixed tubes along the entire route of travel.  Therefore there is a minimum demand required for economically viable operation whereby the energy and time savings justify the construction cost of the tubes.  This limitation of ET3 is shared by trains and canals.  Many jurisdictions impose this limit on automobiles too.  The cost of standard double tube ET3 guideway is greater than the cost of a residential street (or country dirt road), but about 1/4th the cost of a typical 4 lane freeway. 

As with roads and HSR, the cost of ET3 is a function of design speed and topography.  Alignment becomes critical at higher design speeds (thousands of km/h). Higher speeds dictate underground infrastructure in tunnels, subjecting ET3 to many of the disadvantages of tunnels for the high speed routes (at least three times the cost as above ground ET3)  Also it is very expensive to build ET3 across deep water.

Therefore ET3 will not likely serve remote islands, or an isolated cabin in the woods (unless along an advantageous route between population or resource centers).

The optimal economically feasible cargo load weight (800 lb (365 kg passenger, 900 lb (410 kg) cargo) of ET3 is limited compared to a: truck, cargo aircraft, train, barge, or ship capable of carrying loads of many tons.  This limitation is shared by automobiles, SUVs, and motorcycles.  ET3 is not viable for transporting adult elephants, however the ton/hour capacity of ET3 can be greater than a double track heavy rail line.  Our research shows that about 94% of cargo can be accommodated by standard ET3 capsules 1.3m diameter X 4.95 long, (more if disassembly is allowed).  By contrast a standard 40 foot shipping container can accommodate about 98%. 

Finally, there is an energy and time overhead for a capsule to enter / leave the tubes through an airlock and recharge the air system and maglev cooling system.  This limits the usefulness of ET3 to trips longer than about 10km (6 miles). 

See the attached file showing ET3 constraints.

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ET3Constraints.xls37.5 KB
Is the passenger capacity fixed?

As said, a capsule can carry up to 6 people or 367 Kg. But in conventional transportation system, we have more passengers traveling.To be more specific, a train carries minimum of 6 to 7 hundred passengers at a time, wherein the biggest aircraft carries passengers up to 400 nos.. Now, how can this be equated to 6 passengers in a capsule, that too traveling too long distance?

There are several aspects to ET3 passenger (or cargo) capacity:

The standard capsule passenger capacity is one to 6 passengers, with a maximum total weight of 800 lbs.  Standard cargo capsules (without life support) have a capacity of up to three euro pallets (0.8m wide X 1.2m long X 1m high total weight up to 900 lbs.  This optimal weight capacity may be increased (or decreased) by increasing (or decreasing) the size of the magnets in the guideway tubes, and the size of the YBCO elements (super conductors) in the capsule maglev components. 

There are many different airlock designs that have various advantages and disadvantages.  The capacity can vary from a simple home airlock with a cycle time measured in minutes (low cost);  to a dynamic seal airlock capable of admitting two or three capsules per second (higher energy use).  The standard airlock capacity is one capsule in (and out) every 26 seconds.  This is more than 800 passengers per hour.  The standard airlock is a compromise between low cost and low energy use, and high capacity.  One access portal can have one airlock, or many arranged in parallel. One airlock could serve about two airport gates operating at maximum capacity (two 474 aircraft per hour).

ET3 is automated, and uses a 'interchange' philosophy (like a freeway), and NOT a 'switch' philosophy like a train (that limits capacity).  A freeway is limited in capacity by limits of human control and judgment (relating to vehicle speed and spacing).  Automation reliably transcends human limitations.  The maximum tube capacity is a function of the design speed.  At 350 mph it is just over 10 capsules per second. Therefore a single tube can move as many passengers as 20 lanes of freeway with fully loaded cars (2 tube = 40 freeway lanes at 350 mph).  This is over 200,000 passengers per hour in each direction if capsules are filled to the maximum of 6 per capsule.  This is ten times greater capacity than a high speed rail line.   At 700 mph it is a little over 20 capsules per second. 

A key advantage to ET3 capacity is that it is scalable in much more granular increments than trains (600 passengers) or airliner capacity (100 to 400 passengers).  The access portals can be added as are exits on a freeway (as opposed to an international airport, or train station).

See the attached constraints xls file.

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ET3Constraints.xls37.5 KB

ET3 uses standard off-the-shelf vacuum pumps to permanently remove air from the tubes.  Most of the time the pumps will be turned off, unless to run for a while to remove any air that leaks in.  Pumps running too often indicate that a leak needs to be repaired.  Leak repair can occur from outside the tube without shutting down the system.  NOTE: ET3 is NOT like pneumatic tube systems that rely on air movement and pressure differences to propel the capsules, the capsules are magnetically levitated, and propelled by linear electric motors. 

Do tall or small people fit comfortably within a capsule?

I am 6 feet 6 inches (198 cm) and have difficulties with leg space in Economy flights and even some cars don't have enough leg space for me to drive comfortably. Are there difficulties for me sitting comfortably within a capsule, since the seats in the picture gallery are ergonomically made for average length people. This problem may also apply to small people or children, just the other way around. How are you going to solve this issue for people not in average length?

ET3 seats are designed to accommodate a very wide range of human dimensions normally encountered.  We used ergonomic data to ensure that ET3 can accommodate over 99.999% of humans.  The seats and capsule size will accommodate 1 percentile adult females OR two 99% adult males.  Adults larger than this can take the whole width, (or the whole capsule) to accommodate up to 800 lbs persons.  It is estimated that there are less than 1000 persons in the world than will not be able to fit in an ET3 capsule. 

The ET3 seats have adjustable foot rests, and adjustable air bladders for different spine curvatures, and sitting heights (and thigh support).  ET3 comfort will be better than a typical recliner -- if you are over 6-8 tall, we suggest using a capsule configured for 4 seats instead of 6 seats, and/or using 2 seats (sitting in the center of the seat will give a couple inches more head room for up to 7-4 room (likely less than 1000 people on earth taller than this).

The ET3 capsule mock up has been tested by a wide range of people.  Over a thousand have sat in it, and only one said they felt more comfortable in an aircraft or automobile.  When further questioned, this person said the seat was more comfortable, but space was too small to be in for a few hours.  When they learned that they would be able to stop at any access portal (no further than 15 minutes apart) their reservations melted, and they said they could probably last a few hours if they knew that they could get out at any time with a maximum 15 min wait time to do so. 

See the ET3 Facebook page for photos of the mockup (tested with very large individuals).  The large persons that have sat in the mockup expressed that they were much more comfortable than in a car or aircraft.  The required license to use ET3 will offer the ability to store personal preferences for seating adjustments.  Prosthetic cushions can be custom made for individuals with special needs.

By what force does the ETT start?

The force(source) that makes ETT to just start(begin) at high speed. Mechanism of the impulse like for eg. Spring or magnet etc.

ET3 capsules are accelerated with an linear electric motor (LEM).  The LEM uses electrical energy to create a magnetic field in attraction and/or repulsion to propel the capsule.  One up to speed, the capsule coasts with only a small amount of power to keep proper timing and spacing. 

We sell a license to use the ET3 patents and other intellectual property.  We do not plan to sell any of our IP. 

Since all people depend on transportation for survival, ET3 enjoys wide support.  We do not track the political party preference of licensees, so we cannot say what the percentage of support is according to party lines, but we do know that there is representation for ET3 on both sides of the isle. 

ET3 capsules are designed to accommodate a very wide range of human needs at the greatest possible value.  Disabled persons able to use accessible public restrooms or taxis should have little trouble using ET3.  Safety issues require a person who uses a wheel chair to transfer to a seat (as if using a toilet, or taxi).  In the future it is likely that ET3 compliant special chairs (powered or manual) will be designed to roll in and out of ET3 capsules AND safely deal with acceleration and deceleration forces that typical devices are not presently designed for.

Note that very few automobiles are equipped with toilets or washroom facilities.  ET3 capsules operate as cars on a freeway so when toilets and washrooms are needed the capsule will never be further than about 15 min from an access portal with such facilities.  An option is removable cushion with a plastic bag lined receptacle for emergency use.  Some privacy can be availed with a pull down screen between the seats.  Not a replacement for a toilet, but better than nothing if sudden urgency strikes. 

When will it start spreading? What are you doing right now?

Are the tubes coming? What has happened in the last year that shows the company growing?

Our growth has been unpredictable, but as we gather strength and recognition from credible sources our growth rate accelerates.  We see the critical step is building the first full scale demo at the target design speed of 600km/h.  This will take about 3 miles.  We are looking for locations, and are developing a list of smaller towns close to or between big cities that are interested in being first. 

Licensees are in control of the information they make available to other licensees on the www.et3.net website. 

We believe that we are close to forming the critical mass to implement ET3.  Some people sit back and wait to get involved, others jump in and help get things done that will lead to the first three mile demo operating at 600km/h (375mph).

What about all the red tape from the FEDs and state Governments, also the DOT

Hello, we all know that there will be a lot of government interference. What will be done to smooth over the multiple problems that will arise in dealing with all the alphabet agencies who will stick there nose in. Is there a business plan that incorporates a strategy? Where will the 1st operating system be constructed and implemented?

Government is proving to be one of the more significant barriers to ET3 implementation.  Fortunately over 70% of the US economy is non-government, this is why we are focused on private implementation of ET3.   We are offering land owners (governments or private) 5% of revenue generated across the land if they grant a perpetual right of way (ROW).  (NOTE; as with electric ROW, government has the power to take land for public use -- in that case the government would get the 5% -- plus the tax on any profits generated.  Most of the ROW land can still be used for other uses such as power lines, grazing, or farming.  We believe it is important to "plant seeds" and spend a little of our time informing elected officials and planners about ET3.

Fortunately there are no agencies with direct jurisdiction, and no laws prevent ET3 implementation.  If we do not cross state lines, or tie into existing networks, the FED has no jurisdiction except: The FRA (Fed rail admin) has jurisdiction over rule making for railways that are part of the standard gage (4' 8.5") national network.  Congress has authorized the FRA to draft a maglev rule, but they have not done so yet.  STB (surface transportation board) has rail oversight with respect to rates and environmental jurisdiction over hazardous material transported in pipelines.  DOE has jurisdiction over pipelines used to move oil and gas. 

Environmental laws in CA (AB32 and SB375) that went into force in 2012 and ramp up till 2020 greatly favor ET3 implementation.

Can the Department of Defense use ETT?

Can the United States Department of Defense use ETT systems to transport logistics to its military ocean terminals?

Logistics and movement of supplies takes about 80% of military operations.  We believe ET3 offers significant military advantage -- able to mobilize to a meet a threat with fewer troops, faster, and without detection. 

Q: "I would like to know whether an Evacuated Tube Transport System will be popular, unpopular, bipartisan, etc. in Congress, if it were brought to the Senate or House floors as a stand alone bill. The only thing in this bill will be all necessary funds and components needed to build and maintain an Evacuated Tube Transport System in the United States."

 

A:  The status quo transport modes (truckers, rail industry, auto industry, road builders, etc., ...) pay lobbyists millions of dollars per year to secure billions in government contracts.  Innovative transportation technology startups (like ET3) cannot compete at this trough.  Our research shows that virtually all paradigm shifts in transportation occurred in the private sector, and motivated by profit potential.  History also shows that most new modes encountered opposition from government at first.  As happened with past modes, we see government support occurring AFTER public support is apparent.  Then the most adept politicians will probably claim ET3 was their idea.  Government support (in all countries) is key to achieving our global vision.  So we do continue to "plant seeds" by informing elected officials who will listen about our technology and progress to implementation. 

ET3.com Inc. (the first company) was founded and is still headquartered in Florida.  This company is now a subsidiary of ET3 Global Alliance Inc. a Colorado company.

ET3 to HI is not presently deemed feasible, but may be in the future.  The cost would likely be much greater than the benefit.   Connecting most of the islands of HI to each other  may be feasible however using SFT (submerged floating tunnel) technology.  The best place to cross oceans is the Bering Strait between Alaska and Siberia.

Note that very few automobiles are equipped with toilets or washroom facilities.  ET3 capsules operate as cars on a freeway so when toilets and washrooms are needed the capsule will never be further than about 15 min from an access portal with such facilities.  An option is removable cushion with a plastic bag lined receptacle for emergency use.  Some privacy can be availed with a pull down screen between the seats.  Not a replacement for a toilet, but better than nothing if sudden urgency strikes.

ET3 is like an automobile, access portals will never be further than 15 minutes apart. 

An airlock with gate valves at both ends allows the capsule to enter or exit the tube without letting air in.  The cycle time is one capsule every 26 seconds.

How do they turn?

They're tubes, and the pictures of the "road" they'll be in seem to be straight lines.

See attached file for ET3 curvature limits as a function of speed. 

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ET3Constraints.xls37.5 KB

Prototypes, or production components for all of the individual systems used by ETT exist right now. These components / facilities / materials etc. will be virtually assembled into an ETT system over the Internet. As the real components are assembled virtually, plans and alliances are formed for actual construction. A Licensee acts according to the following outline to add the parts they can supply:

  1. Look over the ETT tech files and determine the classification for your skills, component, material, asset, or service. (If a classification does not exist, propose one)
  2. Post your licensee information and what you offer / need; along with delivery lead times and prices, in the appropriate classifications.
  3. Look for projects you have an interest in, submit offers / or express needs.
  4. Contact Licensees who offer what you need or need what you offer; to cooperate on assemblies, and work out standards etc.
  5. When all required classifications are represented by licensees, bid winners start to work.

Initially it is likely that a small demo system will be built first.

In the year 1907 less than one percent of the US population had an automobile. In Just 35 years (1942) ninety nine percent of horse and buggy travel had been replaced by automotive means. People are less resistant to change than they where a hundred years ago. Now people demand change, when clear benefits are perceived. If you, and those you know, support the ETT system, (even if it is just telling others about it), we could all enjoy low cost world travel in less than 10 years. 

Here are our current goals:

  • 2yrs- a 3 mile demo at 375mph ($10M cost recovered in a year as a $25 amusement ride).
  • 5yrs- 300 mile system connecting major cities (greater than 30% ROI for 10M passengers/yr at $0.10/mile).
  • 10yrs- national networks in most major countries (if all built to the same standard can be interconnected).
  • 20yrs- global ET3 network displacing up to 90% of the global transportation (presently $8.65T/year).

The energy and material use is very low, and the durability of the components is great; so the initial, and operating cost will be much less than current methods of travel (the rate can be less than a penny per passenger mile). Some licensees believe that cost will be so low that advertising could pay for most travel, just like it pays for TV, or free Internet. Depending on who you are, advertisers may actually pay you to travel while watching their presentation! The cost will depend on many factors such as the design speed, the topography, and the demand.

For fiscal operation, both corporate and public operation is encouraged by the non-exclusive, low cost licensing plan. The license promotes both cooperation and competition.

Physical operation of the system is by automated computer control. The only input and skills required are the ability to chose and enter a destination.

Just like trains, initial ETT use will be for cargo, and along high use routes of travel.
Once proven, construction will rapidly spread. Since the system is efficient in energy and materials use, high-speed travel will be low cost, and sustainable. Eventually, everyone in the world may use the system.

ETT stands for Evacuated Tube Transport. ETT is the fastest and most efficient way to travel. It uses well known methods, parts, and technologies. The patented system works by eliminating virtually all friction normally associated with travel. Three basic embodiments range from: low tech low speed systems for local use at speeds below 200 mph; to high tech systems for continental and intercontinental transport up to 4,000 mph or more. For greater detail see technology section.

Would creating tubes large enough to allow passengers to walk around be an option?

Tubes could be as big as buses. I think a lot of people like and enjoy the comfort of traveling on a train, whether it be compartments or regular seats. I know I do.

First off, the terms "tubes" and "capsules" may be a little confusing.  Tubes are analogous to a road, capsules are like a car (or bus) that operates on a road. 

While ET3 tubes could be build big enough to accommodate bus sized capsules, such a scheme has already been proven in the market to be of lower value.  If it were true that "a lot of people like and enjoy the comforts of traveling on a train" trains would still remain the predominate way of travel between cities as they were in the year 1910 in the US.  In 1910 90% of Americans traveled between major city by train, now it is less than 1%.  About 10% fly, and bus use is accounts for about 3% of US passenger miles.  The vast majority of people prefer to travel by automobile.  If we are to displace cars, ET3 must offer even more value than cars.  Value = benefit / cost.  For trips over 20 miles, ET3 is much faster (benefit) for less than a tenth the cost of driving of flying.

The first railroads/trains in the US were build privately and according to the needs of the owners -- so they were built using a gage (track width and rail/wheel size) that suited the economics of the particular route.  Later it was realized that if all built to the same standard gage, that trains could operate on a NETWORK of tracks to great advantage.  This avoided a lot of unnecessary unloading and loading of different size trains.  If ET3 is to eventually networked together into a national (and international) system, it must all be built to the same tube diameter standard. 

Much of the advantage of large vehicles  (e.g. trains compared with muscle powered wagons) was in labor savings.  A few men could operate a train consisting of dozens of cars (or one driver a bus with several dozen passengers).  ET3 uses automation techniques to reduce labor cost to a much greater degree than possible with large vehicles.

The cost of ET3 is very sensitive to the tube diameter.  If the capsules were made "as big as a bus" it would increase the cost by a factor of about 30.  If a fare for one way from SF to LA (350 miles) in a car size ET3 system were $20 (to produce a favorable ROI for owners), the fare for a bus sized system would be $600 (to produce the same ROI at the same number of passengers per day use factor).  If the two systems were built side-by-side, the car sized system would attract most of the passengers, so the bus sized system would not attract enough passengers to recover the cost. This is why passenger train use in the US failed in by the 1950s -- passenger trains only survive due to gross government subsidy where government (tax payers) suffer over 90% of the total cost. 

The most important thing to get correct with ET3 is the capsule diameter.  If the diameter is a little too small ET3 will not achieve sufficient utility to carry most cargo and passenger comfort would suffer.  If a little too big, the cost prevents maximum use.  Our considerable research into this topic of optimal size indicates that the optimal capsule diameter is 1.3m (51") and the corresponding tube diameter is 1.5m (60").  Smaller or larger sizes are possible for highly specialized "off network" use, but we strongly advocate use of the optimum (standard) size for all licensees because of the extreme added value of ET3 if the network is expanded on a global basis.

Does it go to denmark?

i have a projekt about the new trains. and i want to know if it gets built in denmark.

Unfortunately the US government prevents us from exporting ET3 to a few countries such as Iran, and North Korea. Fortunately there are no restrictions for Denmark. We look forward to working with licensees in Denmark to plan and build ET3 on the routes that make the most sense.

ET3 will require traditional materials such as steel and concrete, and fiber reinforced composites.  ET3 that uses HTSM (a new form of maglev) requires advanced materials including high energy permanent magnets (for instance using Neodymium), and YBCO (Yttrium Barium Copper Oxide) superconductor films and / or bulk crystals.  Access portals will require typical building materials.  Tube material is most likely to be nonmetallic (to reduce magnetic drag), options include ultra high strength concrete (such as Ductal by LaFarge), or glass. 

The optimum vacuum level produces the minimum total energy use.  The energy is minimized when pumping power is equal to propulsion power.  Higher quality vacuum reduces drag, but takes more energy to produce.  Optimum vacuum is a function of many variables including: design speed, material leak rates (tube wall, capsule wall, and seals), airlock cycle rate and undisplaced volume, number of capsules per unit of time, etc.  Use of a medium grade vacuum of 10ee-3 Torr, to 10ee-5 Torr is our target for our 600km/h target design speed.  This level can be achieved with a single stage pumping, but two stage is more efficient.  A old CRT style TV is evacuated to a thousand times higher quality vacuum. 

At the target range, the drag will be reduced by a factor of about one million.  Higher speeds and more intense traffic favor deeper vacuum.  There is some drag, but the coasting distance is very long, and speed loss is low.  It is estimated that at 4kmph the drag energy loss for a 8k mile trip is about 8kWh (out of a total kinetic energy of about 250kWh).   Up to 10ee-9 Torr is achieved for very large enclosures such as NASA space simulation buildings, and the LIGO observatory.  Space is about 10ee-12 Torr up to 10ee-19 Torr.  The record vacuum level is better than 10ee-13 Torr.

We do not plan on crossing large expanses of water, the best place to cross is the Bering Strait between Alaska and Siberia. 

ET3 can use any form of maglev such as Electro-Dynamic Suspension (EDS) or Electro-Magnetic Suspension (EMS), however if ET3 is to be networked it must all be built to the same standard.  Most maglev systems are separate from the LEM/LEG (linear electric motor/generator) elements; but EMS can be designed to incorporate LEM/LEG functions.  Both EDS and EMS require significant amounts of energy to overcome magnetic drag or electrical resistance of the coils.  In many cases the magnetic drag and/or suspension energy is greater than the energy to overcome rolling resistance of steel wheels carrying the same load. 

With ET3 there is little or no need for powerful LEM/LEG after the capsule is up to speed, so it is best to design the maglev and LEM/LEG components to function separately). 

A new form of maglev is HTSM (High Temperature Superconductor Maglev).  HTSM uses superconductors in the vehicle and PM (permanent magnets) in the guideway.  Unlike EDS, HTSM requires no motion for suspension force to be generated - hence HTSM has very low drag force (10ee-7 is typical, up to 10ee-9 demonstrated).  Unlike EMS, HTSM requires no electrical energy or electronic measurement and feedback control of the suspension gap.  The car sized HTSM prototype was invented and built by licensee Professors (Mr. and Mrs.) WANG Jiasu at SWJTU in Chengdu China.  The prototype is capable of levitating for 7 hours consuming less than $3.50 worth of liquid nitrogen for cooling.  In the vacuum environment, the heat gain can be reduced by an order of magnitude so we anticipate the maglev cooling cost to be in the range of 5 to 10 cents per hour per car sized capsule.

A significant problem remaining for ET3 is the LEM/LEG technology to use.  There are several proven LEM technologies, however not all of them can be used to provide LEG function, and several require power transfer (or supply) in the vehicle element.  Off-the-shelf linear synchronous motors (LSM) and linear induction motors (LIM) can both work for ET3.  The problem is that the most efficient LEM/LEG is most efficient at speeds below about 400 to 500mph.  The rail gun technologies (proven to 6,000 mph) do not provide LEG function, and have wear issues and/or under government military secrecy and control.  SERAPHIM (developed at NASA 30 years ago) can work at low speed, and high speed too -- but demonstrated efficiency is in the high 70 low 80 range (LSMs have demonstrated up to 97% efficiency).

We believe that new designs will be capable of high efficiency over a very wide speed range, however they remain to be reduced to practice. 

Making concrete and steel creates pollution, however ET3 tubes require 1/35th as much concrete and steel as elevated High-Speed-Rail (HSR).  Furthermore, ET3 tubes can transport 10 times more people per hour than HSR, so material utilization for ET3 is over two orders of magnitude better than HSR.  It is estimated that HSR will take 30 years to recover the energy cost of construction by savings.  (Other studies show that today's cars use less energy than trains, so trains will never recover the construction energy.  Typical ET3 energy savings (compared to electric trains or cars) will recover the energy cost of construction in a few months. 

How can ETT stop when going that fast?

How can it stop this fast transport when you are almost arrived?

A hybrid car is able to recover acceleration energy when the vehicle stops.  This well known process is called regenerative braking.  ET3 uses the same concept.  To slow the capsule a 'linear electric generator' (LEG) is able to recover as much as 90% or more of the acceleration energy.  A car on a freeway  ideally accelerates up to speed before merging into the flow of traffic, and upon arrival to the destination the car exits the freeway on an off ramp before slowing down.  In this way the flow of vehicles on the freeway is not interrupted when one car wants to stop.  ET3 operates the same way, except in tubes, and the control is automated.

In an emergency all capsules in an ET3 tube can be rapidly stopped at the same time by letting air in to the tube all along the length of the tube. 

As of May 2013, there are over 230 licensees (individuals, companies, and institutions) in 19 countries, the majority are in north America. 

Yes, Large-scale projects will at a minimum need government cooperation. We the people are the government. In free countries, demands of the people will insure full government cooperation. Wouldn't you vote for a candidate who openly supports ETT? International systems will need the sanction of the governments involved. It is anticipated that the first systems in the US will be built with private investment, as there are almost no instances where the government has funded revolutionary transportation innovation.

Yes, the cost and liability would be very low, and life support not needed. Lessons learned would benefit large scale use.

Tubes less than a foot in diameter would have use for mail and small packages. Tubes 20 feet in diameter could accommodate a bus. It is estimated that a 5 foot (1.5m) diameter tube could accommodate almost all transport needs.

Capsules 2 feet in diameter and 8 feet long could be used for one person lying down. Capsules could be made big enough to accommodate a bus. Economics will dictate capsule size, and our research shows that the best capsule size has already been proven by the most successful vehicle in the world - the automobile. The average car carries 4-6 passengers, or 800 to 900 pounds of payload. A 51" (1.3m) diameter capsule 16 feet long could accommodate 6 persons. This is estimated to be the best compromise between utility and cost.

Both underground and above ground systems will be built, according to local conditions and economic requirements.

Since primitive man first made a dugout canoe, the demand for transportation improvements has increased. Transportation expenditures are around 14% of the world economy. The rate of growth of transportation is double the rate of growth of the world economy. In developed countries it has grown to 20% or one trillion dollars per year in the USA. Experts have estimated that the costs of ETT transport will be much less than current systems. The right-of-way requirements are around 5% of an interstate freeway. The materials use for spans will less than one tenth. The parts will have a much greater life, further reducing costs. A detailed analysis prepared in 2003 calculated the cost of a 350mph system to be about $2 million / mile.

The tubes can be made of any durable substance that is capable of holding a vacuum. Every route will have special requirements according to local conditions and economics. Some possible materials include but are not limited to: Sealed concrete, glazed ceramic, steel, aluminum, fiberglass, and plastics.

Economics and politics will come into play to determine the optimal location for the first systems. Attractive routes will be between major cities, over unpopulated flat, dry terrain, below the latitudes where the ground freezes. (India and China are the most promising places for initial system implementation).

Those who license the technology and collaborate with one another will build ETT systems. The philosophy is an open system (like Linux), with chaordic rules (like VISA credit card service) where improvements are made by many collaborators working to achieve mutual benefits, but the collaborators have a mechanism for getting paid to the extent of their contribution. People who now work in almost any field will build components, or provide services that make the ETT system possible. Even though most do not realize it, everyone has underutilized, unique skills or assets that could be used to help manifest the ETT system. All the skills, production capacity, materials, and labor force required to build the system exist right now. By purchasing a life-time ETT license for just a hundred bucks, anyone can competitively propose and bid on ETT related work. Since one out of five dollars spent are spent on transportation, there is a tremendous market available for your latent skills or assets. The licensee web site at www.et3.net will be the market place for skills and assets relating to ETT projects.

Can the tubes be transparent, so people can view outside when they travel?

I think the tubes should be transparent, or at least have very sizable portals. It would be kind of creepy and sterile to be strapped into a windowless little container, inserted into a dark tube and shot through it. And looking at it from outside would be equally sinister and almost malevolent looking. Anyone with even a shred of claustrophobia would have an immediate aversive reaction to the entire thing. It should be light, and transparent, suggesting weightlessness and total lack of boundaries.

Riding inside would then be a fantastically exciting experience at such high speed. Watching the pods moving at such high speeds from the outside would be tremendously exciting.

 

You are not alone in your thought, others have expressed similar concerns prompting detailed research into the issue of fears.  What we
discovered is that there are some people who are so claustrophobic that they cannot get into an elevator, phone booth, or even an
automobile.
 
We also discovered that there are likely more people who would be afraid to ride in a fully transparent system.  We worked with over a dozen design teams at Colorado School of Mines, and they came up with several ways to provide both conditions in the same capsule.  HD cameras on the outside of the tube can capture external images that are transmitted in real time to new high tech eye wear that displays the image.  The eye glasses simulate a fully transparent view from treetop level.  If the occupant turns their head to the left the view is updated to view left facing cameras, etc --- much better visibility than in an aircraft or car. 
 
The ability to see the capsules operating in the tubes would be a slight decrease in security.  While it is extremely rare compared to
car accidents, occasionally a terrorist will use a sniper rifle to target people in cars, trains, or aircraft.  This is not as likely if the terrorist cannot see where the vehicles are.
 
Our focus is to maximize transportation value for as many people as possible -- we will not sacrifice the needs of the many for the wants of a few.  We agree that the user experience is very important, and there is much that can be done to tailor ET3 to suit individual preferences (and even mitigate unreasonable fears).

ET3 will be safer than other modes for transporting hazardous waste.  ET3 offers several levels of containment, and is very secure and traceable.  In the case of nuke waste, ET3 will need permitting from several government agencies before transporting such materials.  We are not focused on promoting ET3 for this use, but in the future it may play a role. 

Some people are unreasonably afraid of enclosed spaces. The amount of room per passenger exceeds that of airplanes and luxury automobiles. Reclined seating and "virtual window" displays allow the simulation of whatever environment the rider prefers; or TV, movies, video games, etc. may be displayed to provide distraction from negative thoughts.

Life-support apparatus is a well developed field. Space stations in orbit allow astronauts to breathe for several months, even though the capsule is in a near vacuum. Submarines have been around for over a hundred years, modern subs can stay submerged for more than a month. The systems used in Evacuated Tube Transport will be much less demanding. Only 2-3 hours (plus reserves) of life-support is needed.

Just going fast does not affect the human body. Astronauts in orbit travel faster than 20,000 MPH. The human body can tolerate 8g of acceleration or more for short periods of time. Top fuel dragsters are capable of about 4g acceleration. Many roller coasters produce 3g of acceleration. Most cars produce almost 1g under maximum braking. If acceleration is limited to 1g, most people will not experience any discomfort. The time to travel estimates assume a maximum of 1g of force, and a top speed of 4,000 MPH

What happens if something (earthquake / accident) breaks the tube?

What happens if something (earthquake / accident) breaks the tube? If we are flying along in that tube at 350 MPH and an earthquake ruptures the tube or a semi drives into the support beam and the tube breaks. What happens? obviously the tube will re-pressurize and I assume there will be a shock wave and that the capsules would then decelerate quickly. A capsule headed toward the break would obviously be totally obliterated. An airplane won't be affected at all. A train would be damaged, but not totally destroyed. History tells us that some train passengers would die, but most would survive. No one in a capsule that hits that break at 350 is going to live.

As disclosed in US patent 5,595,543 if a massive leak occurs that section of tube will be isolated from the network, and then flooded with air along the length of the tube.  The rate and spacing of the air admission valves is such that the capsules are all slowed down by aerodynamic resistance, and the air between the capsules acts as a big air bag to help limit the force of any collisions.  This represents less risk than a wing falling off of an airliner flying at 40,000 feet.

It may take a several hours to remove stranded capsules, and a few days to repair and pump down the tubes. 

How will the cars be kept cool?

The cars are running in a rough vacuum on a maglev system. Therefore they are not in contact with anything. Heat can be generated from the maglev system and the aerodynamic drag (rough vacuum still has some air). How will you dissipate that heat when you are not in contact with anything?

A heat sink such as ice.

Earthquakes?

The most successful vehicle in the world is not the automobile. It is the bicycle. Please prove this is more than just a scam by answering a fundamental safety issue- how will you address earthquakes and other shifts in earths plate? If this technology is viable than why is California and new York opting to build high speed trains?

You asked:

" The most successful vehicle in the world is not the automobile. It is the bicycle. Please prove this is more than just a scam by answering a fundamental safety issue- how will you address earthquakes and other shifts in earths plate? If this technology is viable than why is California and new York opting to build high speed trains? "

Answer:

While the bicycle is very successful, the evidence we rely on indicates that the number of passenger miles and ton miles by bike is less than for automobiles.  Roads (and bikes), and High-Speed-Rail (HSR) are not designed to address earthquakes and other shifts in earth's plates.  Roads, HSR (and bikes) are not usually considered to be scams (but HSR often is).  All transportation modes are prone to earthquake damage.  Fortunately earthquakes account for less than 0.01% of transportation related death and property loss.   Earthquake mitigation is possible (and planed and designed) for ET3 however earthquake mitigation is not considered to be "a fundamental safety issue" for ET3 or any other mode of travel.  Earthquake risk applies to everything (not just transportation) every building is at risk.  Even ships at sea, and aircraft must eventually land, and the airport runway can be destroyed just as any plane is landing. 

The fundamental safety issues for most modes (including ET3) are: control of the vehicle (automation is proven to be orders of magnitude improvement over manual control), and control of the conditions of travel (the tube offers isolation from all but the most violent forces in nature).  Human error is the number one contributor to transportation death rate.  Other fundamental transportation safety issues are weather issues (fog, rain, snow, ice, etc,); animals or other objects in the path of travel; and mechanical failure (flat tires, broken tie-rods, engine stall, etc.).

As far as CA and NY considering HSR -- the powerful rail industry spends millions of dollars in the lobbies of government to ensure that politicians continue to forcibly take $billions from tax payers.  If trains were as wonderful as claimed by the rail lobby, why is it that passenger train's 90% market share for US intercity travel in 1910 has now declined to less than 0.6% of the US passenger miles?  The only reason that passenger trains (once private) continue to survive is due to gross government subsidy.

Roads, and High-Speed-Rail (HSR) are not designed to address earthquakes and other shifts in earth's plates.   All transportation modes are prone to earthquake damage.  Fortunately earthquakes account for less than 0.01% of transportation related death and property loss.   Earthquake mitigation is possible.  The Alaska pipeline crosses the Denali fault, and was designed for a maximum expected event.  A 7.9 quake along the Denali fault happened in 2002, the design for pipeline quake mitigation worked and not a drop of oil spilled.  Much more sophisticated quake mitigation is designed) for ET3 however earthquake mitigation is not the main safety issue for ET3 or any other mode of travel.  Earthquake risk applies to everything (not just transportation) every building is at risk.  Earthquake probability is very unlikely at any given place and time.

If an unlikely tube ruptures occurs, sensors activate a safety routine to reduce risks.  The damaged section is isolated with gate valves, traffic rerouted, and then air is admitted all along the tube via apertures sized and spaced such that the rate of capsule deceleration is high yet survivable.  The air between the capsules reduces the likelihood of collisions as they slow down and encounter the inrush of air from the rupture. 

The main safety issues for most modes (including ET3) are: control of the vehicle (automation is proven to be orders of magnitude improvement over manual control), and control of the conditions of travel (the tube offers isolation from all but the most violent forces in nature).  Human error is the number one contributor to transportation death rate.  Other fundamental transportation safety issues are weather issues (fog, rain, snow, ice, etc,); animals or other objects in the path of travel; and mechanical failure (flat tires, broken tie-rods, engine stall, etc.).  ET3 has elements necessary to improve transportation safety by orders of magnitude (just as automation improved telecom reliability compared with human telephone switch board operators of a hundred years ago).

The first 3 miles (600km/h speed) will likely cost about $20m.  For 200-300 mile routes, the cost should drop to about $3M/mile if on reasonably flat ground and close to manufacturing locations.  Add the cost of Access portals (about $25M), and capsules (about $50k each in quantity).

If an unlikely tube ruptures occurs, sensors activate a safety routine to reduce risks.  The damaged section is isolated with gate valves, traffic rerouted, and then air is admitted all along the tube via apertures sized and spaced such that the rate of capsule deceleration is high yet survivable.  The air between the capsules reduces the likelihood of collisions as they slow down and encounter the inrush of air from the rupture.  As a network, with decentralized controls, and high redundancy total failure is very improbable.  Deterrents include: cameras and microphones on the tubes. 

What would be the effects and recourse of a phenomenon such as a hurricane, tornado or other horrific event causing damage (i.e. breaking the vacuum, etc) to the lines?

What would happen and how will this be dealt with if the lines were active and in current use at the time of the event?

All transportation modes are subject to impacts from tornadoes and hurricanes.  Fortunately transportation deaths such events are very rare compared to common accidents.  Higher speed ET3 will be underground this will also help mitigate wind damage risks.

If an unlikely tube ruptures occurs, sensors activate a safety routine to reduce risks.  The damaged section is isolated with gate valves, traffic rerouted, and then air is admitted all along the tube via apertures sized and spaced such that the rate of capsule deceleration is high yet survivable.  The air between the capsules reduces the likelihood of collisions as they slow down and encounter the inrush of air from the rupture.

Q:  "What preventative measures are in place when confronted with hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, so on and so forth?"

A:

Anything built by man can be destroyed by nature.  Such 'acts of God' events threaten all transportation modes, and all of our homes and places of business.  Fortunately such events are rare and constitute less than 1% of transportation related deaths and property loss.   What we are really concerned about is improving transportation safety, so our focus is on doing something about what represents the greatest threats to transportation safety such as: operator error,  obstacles in the path of travel, snow, fog, ice, rain, mechanical failures, etc..   ET3 will not eliminate all risk, but it will dramatically reduce the biggest transportation safety problems.

ET3 has very high capacity to move people.  A single tube (600km/h or 375mph design speed) has a capacity of 240,000 passengers per hour, so ET3 has the potential to quickly evacuate a big city if a major storm is on the way. 

Air rushing into a tube could pneumatically propel, impact, or damage a capsule, or cause capsules to collide.  To mitigate this risk, if a big leak is sensed, the section of tube is isolated, and traffic is rerouted, and the isolated tube is flooded with air along the entire length.  This air is admitted as fast as possible without causing the capsules to decelerate faster than survivable.  In this way, a sudden tube breach will damage fewer capsules.  The high speed routes will be underground -- so the possibility of a broken tube is much less. 

Electro-Magnetic-Pulse (EMP) can be caused by lightning or nuke blasts, or other man-made causes.  EMP can cause very high current in long conductors, current high enough to explosively vaporize the conductor.  Most of the ET3 tubes will not have long conductors for most of the length.  One of the world's top experts in EMP mitigation is a licensee, and has advised on ways to mitigate EMP risk for ET3. 

Q: Especially while it's in use. What will you do during those situations

 

Over 99% of transportation deaths and property loss is NOT caused by natural disasters.  We focus on reducing or eliminating the worst transportation risks first (such as human errors), and we can also reduce the risk of natural disasters too.  All modes (and all buildings too) are at risk of earthquakes, tornadoes and hurricanes.  ET3  tubes can be designed to withstand high wind, but not if the wind picks up a building or locomotive and slams it into the tubes!  ET3 will automatically re-route vehicles to go around tubes that are in the path of a tornado or hurricane.   ET3 can mitigate quakes too (similar to how way it worked on the Alaska pipeline crossing the Denali Fault 7.9 quake in 2002).

 

 

Although rare, acts of terrorism occur. Airplanes, boats, and cars are favored targets because the terrorist can use the vehicle to escape detection, and elude apprehension. Statistically, the death rate due to terrorism is much lower than deaths caused by operator error, weather, and mechanical failures. High security, surveillance, and swift apprehension of suspects reduce losses due to terrorism. Much tighter security is possible with the ETT system than is possible with aircraft, boats, or automobile.

The braking system is automatic. It does not rely on human control. The parts are subject to continuous automatic inspection and replaced before unacceptable wear occurs. Multiple redundant backup braking is activated if any failure occurs in the primary braking system. Compared with automobiles, trains and airplanes, failure of ETT braking systems are unlikely.

Emergency escape hatches are placed every mile or so along the tube. In the rare event of stoppage in the tube, the capsules will be directed to the nearest escape hatch.

Since ETT will be the fastest method of travel, it will be the preferred way to transport persons for medical reasons. Terminals will be equipped with EMT facilities and personnel. A button may be pushed if a person is in distress from sudden illness. Heart sensors also signal a medical emergency. The signal causes the capsule to be diverted to the nearest EMT facility. In case of a false alarm, the person indicating the false alarm could be charged a fine to discourage misuse.

Have you considered undercutting the freight market first?

As a reluctant trucker I see much oversized freight that won't fit in a 5' tube, however I also transport much that, packed differently at the shipper, would fit the 2' tube with ease. The USPS is a great target customer for small freight in great qualities that are times sensitive. Electronics, perishable foods, small parts manufacturing lines joined over long distances to act as one factory: undercut the cost of freight enough and industries will be BEGGING for diameter upgrades.

 

You also wrote: "As a reluctant trucker I see much oversized freight that won't fit in a 5' tube, however I also transport much that, packed differently at the shipper, would fit the 2' tube with ease. The USPS is a great target customer for small freight in great qualities that are times sensitive. Electronics, perishable foods, small parts manufacturing lines joined over long distances to act as one factory: undercut the cost of freight enough and industries will be BEGGING for diameter upgrades"

ANSWER:

To be clear, the ET3 term "tube" refers to the evacuated guideway structure (long tubes along a route), and the ET3 vehicles are referred to as 'capsules'. 

We agree that high value and time sensitive perishable goods transport offer much higher profits than passenger travel, and less liability too.  FedEx gets about $50 to overnight deliver a small envelope overnight across country (how many envelopes would fit in a 900lb cargo limit capsule?)  The conundrum is that the typical cargo haul is 800 miles, and 100 miles is about the minimum for profitability for cargo only use.  By contrast, if used as an amusement ride, a 3 mile ET3 route could be profitable but with greater risk and liability. 

We do not advocate non-standard ET3 diameters.  If ET3 is to be seamlessly networked on a global basis (our vision), it must all be built to the same standard diameter.  2' diameter capsules could move a lot of cargo, and also one or two persons at a time (laying down), however this is not optimum as too much cargo would have to go by other modes, and passenger comfort would be compromised so not as much transportation would take place in ET3.  Using two or three different size tubes would fragment the market ( resulting in less usefulness due to mode changes).  This lesson was learned the hard way with all the different railway gages that were used at first. 

Optimizing the diameter of the capsules is key to maximizing value.  If the diameter is a few cm too big ET3 will fail to reach maximum market share because it is a little too expensive.  If a few cm too small ET3 will not reach maximum market share due to low cargo utility and compromised comfort. 

About 6% of cargo will not fit in a standard 1.3m diameter X 4.95m long capsule, and about 2% of cargo will not fit in a standard 40' shipping container.  Increasing ET3 diameter to the size needed to fit 40' containers would increase the cost by a factor of 30, and only improve cargo utility by 4%.  Cargo is only half of the $8.65T per year that is spent globally for transportation.  Research shows that passenger use would suffer if bus sized capsules were used instead of the overwhelmingly preferred car sized vehicle.

Our considerable research shows a 1.5m (5') tube will accommodate a 1.3m (51") capsule and produce the greatest likely market value (and hence use).  If all ET3 is built to the same diameter standard it can be networked together on a national and even global basis.  Our vision is pallet-at-a-time loads from any manufacture in India or China to any city in EU or North America in 4 hours or less -- from manufacture to without switching modes.  

Some truckers express apprehension for ET3, fearing that it will put them out of business.  An alternative view is that ET3 implementation all over the world will create a flurry of economic activity, and that trucks will be needed to build the ET3 network on a global basis for 20 to 30 years until build out.  In addition, ET3 implementation in third world countries will grow the global economy increasing demand for US goods and services.  Also, large items will still be transported, so trucking will likely continue longer than trucks (or truckers) typically last. 

ET3 has the potential to displace most modes due the the major value improvement.  We believe ET3 has the potential for as much as a 90% share of transportation further than about 20 miles.  ET3 is not likely to "phase out" all other forms of transport.  For instance there are more horses in the US now than there were in the 1800s, but they are not used for transportation they are used for pleasure or entertainment.  Cars, airplanes, and motorcycles may be used for pleasure -- much like horses now.  ET3 will allow developing countries to have a high standard of living, increasing demand for vacation air travel to remote locations that cannot be served by ET3.  So it is likely that global air travel will continue to increase for many years as a result of ET3

Perhaps some will, most will realize that they are in the transportation business, and use under-used production facilities to manufacture ETT components. Much like in the early 1900's when Fisher (coach works) switched to building automobile bodies as buggy demand declined. Other companies were not so wise.

One thing in life is certain, that is all things change. Some embrace change others resist. For instance some people still farm with horse and wagon. Some people learn new skills as quick as possible. They are able to capitalize on the fact that many resist inevitable change.

ETT system construction will require large amounts of plastics. If demand for transportation fuel is reduced, oil companies could modify existing refineries to manufacture plastics at much lower cost, while maintaining profits. Low cost plastic building products will replace the use of wood in building construction. Oil companies realize that oil reserves are limited. When ETT becomes the transportation system of choice, valuable oil resources can be used and recycled for many years instead of being converted into smog by cars. This will have a very beneficial effect on the environment. Oil companies will be seen as protectors of the forests, instead of contributors to pollution. It will also extend the amount of time oil companies may profit from known oil reserves.

Many risk factors will impact the ability to profit through a license or compensatory shares.  We believe that Licensees who build and own ET3 infrastructure along routes with high transportation demand are the most likely to profit.  Licensees who have production capacities that are used to produce parts or components for any ET3 projects have potential to profit from the sale of their products to licensees building a ET3 line.  Licensees who contract to provide services that earn shares will be more likely to profit if ET3 implementation occurs and is successful.   If ET3 fails to be built and / or does not work as expected or live up to performance expectations, licensees and shareholders alike will have less or no profit potential.  ET3 shares are not registered or publicly traded, we rely on an exemption from registration under SEC Rule 701, and all outstanding shares are restricted and cannot be publicly traded or marketed.  We cannot guarantee that the private shares will become registered or publicly traded. 

There are also political risks likely to impact the implementation of ET3.  Governments are involved in competing transportation modes, and may refuse grant to or impede permitting and or ROW acquisitions and or crossings of roads or public lands. 

Our focus in the use of compensatory shares is on producing assets leading to and supporting ET3 implementation.  We see ET3 implementation as a new market for licensee assets (skills, IP, production capacities, etc.).  Some contracted services include: building the various ET3 web sites; accounting services, legal services, engineering services, route planning and survey, marketing, writing, parts and component production and/or supply, etc.  Most service contracts are focused on producing value assets for the company.  As with most companies, our goal is to acquire assets at a cost less than the value.  We believe this will tend to improve share book value but cannot be guaranteed. We cannot guarantee that the shares book value will translate into market value, even if the shares become registered and publicly traded. 

Buy a license to use your skills, IP, or production capacities to impliment (or help impliment) ET3 systems.

Zero in the traditional sense.  All work is done by licensees (individuals, companies, and institutions) acting as independent contractors.  There are now over 230 licensees in 19 nations.

Yes the tubes will be built along a route, and then as a last step of construction almost all the air will be removed.  It will take about 5 gallons of gasoline equivalent worth of electrical energy to evacuate a mile.  It will take a few days before the water dries out, and the materials stop out gassing.  Vacuum pumps will be at least every couple miles, they will be capable of overlap so if one pump fails the other pumps can keep the vacuum consistent.   Depending on the type of pumps used they may run all the time (maglev turbo pumps have ultra low energy use unless there they are moving a lot of air) or infrequently.  The energy use is a function of how much air leaks in, and this will be minimal.  If the pumps start drawing more power, or turn on frequently it indicates a leak in the area.  The pumps can keep up with small leaks, and the leaks can be repaired without stopping service. 

Airlocks at access portals allow the capsules to enter or leave the tubes without letting much air in.  It will take a few cents worth of energy per air lock cycle.  The optimum vacuum level will likely be in the range of 10ee-3 to 10ee-4 Torr.  If the vacuum quality is too great it will take more energy to maintain than the energy saved from drag reduction. If the vacuum not good enough the propulsion energy loss from drag increases more than the energy savings from lower quality vacuum.

Are you going to sell stock?

I want to to be both a licensee and and a stockholder in this company but I need to know how probable would it be, if I do become a license holder, that I will also be able to buy stock?

Q: " I want to to be both a licensee and and a stockholder in this company but I need to know how probable would it be, if I do become a license holder, that I will also be able to buy stock? "

 

A:

While we cannot guarantee that ET3 shares will be made available, the law change that occurred April of 2012 promises to make it possible for us to offer a very limited number of shares (only after the new rules have been made by the SEC).  If the law changes makes it possible, and if shares are offered, we intend to make them available to licensees (subject to any qualification rules that may be adopted).

  1. Read and understand all terms of the et3.com License Agreement.
  2. Fill out the license application form, agreeing to all terms by printing, signing, and sending in the form and other required documents.
  3. Pay the one time license fee of $100.
  4. Receive Grant of License posted on the website on acceptance. (the fee will be returned if license application is rejected). License applications will only be refused if the applicant fails to meet the qualifications, or fails to follow instructions

There are three basic ways an et3.com Licensee makes money:

  1. Use the technology to build all or part of an ETT system, profiting from the construction, or sharing in the revenues generated by operating a completed system.
  2. Contribute intellectual property (IP) relating to ETT, to the et3.com technology pool, and share in royalty income generated by Licensees engaging in ETT projects, as that IP is used.
  3. Perform services for et3.com Inc. in exchange for stock; thus sharing in any royalty income allocated to shareholders, and the shares may gain in value with successful ETT implementations.

A public offering of stock is expensive. Often the extra overhead and reporting hampers the ability of the company to perform its core functions. A core philosophy if the company is the minimization of unproductive overhead to keep license cost as low as possible. The company et3.com Inc. will go public only if it is a key to fulfilling its mission.

The company is not selling stock to the public. The company is using stock to compensate its licensees who perform needed functions for startup and continuing operations. The compensatory shares are restricted and may not be sold or transferred to the public. Any sale of stock (if any) will be private placement to licensees of et3.com Inc. who meet the Accredited Investor qualifications defined by the SEC.

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